Opside employs a PoS consensus based on an enhanced version of ETH 2.0. To participate as a validator, users must deposit a certain amount of IDE into the deposit contract and run three separate pieces of software: the execution client, consensus client, and validator. Validators are responsible for verifying the validity of new blocks propagated through the network and occasionally creating and propagating new blocks themselves. If a validator behaves dishonestly or negligently, the staked IDE will be forfeited.
Under PoS, Opside has a fixed block production rate, with time divided into slots (12 seconds) and epochs (32-time slots). In each slot, a randomly selected validator serves as the block proponent, responsible for creating new blocks and sending them to other nodes on the network. Additionally, in each slot, a committee of validators is randomly chosen to determine the validity of the proposed block using their votes. For the exact mechanism, please refer to ETH PoS.
Opside plans to support EIP-4844 in the Alpha test network, utilizing Data Availability Sampling (DAS) to ensure that ZK-Rollup provides transaction data after execution without overburdening individual nodes. Validators randomly sample the transaction data in the blob to verify that all data is present. This technique can also ensure block producers make all their data available to secure light clients. Under Proposer-Builder Separation (PBS), only the block builder needs to handle the entire block, while other validators use data availability sampling for verification.
Opside will differ in some specific parameters, which readers can find in the codebase.
Overall, staking simplifies participation in network protection and promotes decentralization. Validator nodes can be run on standard laptops, and some proxy staking pools even allow users to stake without a sufficient IDE balance.